Title IX

Celebrating the inspirational individuals and landmark moments in the history of Title IX, and continuing to grow the educational and competitive opportunities for the future.

 

 

Looking to download the #TitleIXat50 Toolkit? Wanting to know when your state will be featured as part of the #TitleIXat50 Content Calendar?

 

Select from the buttons shared below to access these two helpful resources.

 

       

Title IX Timeline

  •  

    • Female executive directors are hired in Wisconsin and New Jersey. Stephanie Hauser becomes the first female to lead the Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association, while Colleen Maguire is the first to lead the New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic Association.

     

    • California Interscholastic Federation held its first State/Regional Girls Championship in softball.

     

  •  

    • Dr. Karissa Niehoff was hired as the first female chief executive officer of the National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) and only the sixth person in the 101 years of the organization to hold the position on a full-time basis. Currently, she is the only female chief executive officer among the leaders of the national organizations for high school, college and professional sports.

      

    • Laurie Fellenz hired as the first female executive director of the Wisconsin School Music Association, founded in 1932, and its two partner organizations, the Wisconsin Music Educators Association and the Wisconsin Foundation for School Music.

     

    • 2017-2018: 3,415,306 girls participated in high school sports.

     

    • New Mexico has first female crew chief for boys basketball.

     

    • California Interscholastic Federation held its first Southern California Girls State Championship in Soccer and Water Polo. 

     

    • Illinois High School Association held its first girls lacrosse state championship. 

  •  

    • Que Tucker is hired as executive director at the North Carolina High School Athletic Association. She was the second black woman to lead a state high school association, and the first to serve as a commissioner in the southeast. Tucker came to the NCHSAA in 1991 after serving as an assistant basketball coach at NC State University under Kay Yow. .

     

    • The Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights issues a Dear Colleague Letter reminding all schools that receive Federal financial assistance must designate at least one employee to coordinate their efforts to comply with and carry out the school’s responsibilities under Title IX of the Education amendments of 1972. This person is generally referred to as the Title IX coordinator.

     

    • California Interscholastic Federation held its first State/Regional Girls Championship in swimming & diving.

  •  

    • Jo Auch has spent nearly four decades in education, coaching and officiating in South Dakota, including the past 12 years as assistant executive director of the South Dakota High School Activities Association. She was one of the first three-sport female athletes in South Dakota, and continued her athletic career as one of the first scholarship female athletes at the University of South Dakota.

     

  •  

    • Becky Oakes was named executive director of the MSHSAA in 1982 after serving 10 years as assistant and associate director of the organization. She was only the second female to be named director of a state high school association on a full-time basis. Shortly after assuming duties as MSHSAA executive director, Oakes was appointed to a four- year term on the NFHS Board of Directors, and in 1996, she was the first female to be elected president of the NFHS.

  •  

    • Carolyn Shannonhouse became the North Carolina High School Athletic Association's first female assistant executive director in 1986.

  •  

    • Gina Mazzolini was hired at the Texas University Interscholastic League and later worked at the Michigan High School Athletic Association.  A pioneering athlete, former high school and college coach, Mazzolini was one of the longest-serving assistant directors for the MHSAA.

  •  

    • Susan True was hired by the NFHS and was an Assistant Director for 17 years and national leader on advancement of girls sports. She was also instrumental in starting the NFHS Equity Committee.

     

    • In 1982, Janis Dawson was the youngest female inducted into the Oklahoma Music Educators Association Hall of Fame.

  •  

    • Kathy Tadlock was hired by the Arkansas Activities Association (AAA). She was the first female administrator for the AAA, a position she held for 30 years. Kathy’s involvement with high school cheerleading led her to organize and initiate the Arkansas Cheerleading Coaches Association.

     

    • Debra Velder was named assistant director of the Nebraska School Activities Association (NSAA), Velder previously administered the sports of volleyball, gymnastics and swimming and diving, as well as debate. She is one of several longtime state association leaders who have helped advance girls sports across the nation.

     

    • California Interscholastic Federation held their first girls basketball state championship.

  • • Department of Education is established and given oversight of Title IX through the Office for Civil Rights (OCR).

  •  

    • Brigid DeVries was hired by the Kentucky High School Athletic Association. DeVries, the first female to head the KHSAA and only the fifth woman to head a state high school athletic association, was the sixth individual to serve as Commissioner of the Association. DeVries was named the sixth Commissioner of the KHSAA on July 1, 2002, after serving as Executive Assistant Commissioner for eight years and Assistant Commissioner for 15 years. As Commissioner, DeVries has been responsible for providing leadership and execution of interscholastic athletics for the Association’s 277 member schools.

     

    •December 11, 1979: The Department of Health, Education and Welfare issued its final Title IX Policy Interpretation and the precise requirements for compliance began to come into focus for universities, high schools, middle schools, and elementary schools. The 1979 Policy Interpretation established what is presently referred to as the “3-Prong Test”, and set forth with specificity all of the factors to be considered in assessing compliance by an institution with Title IX.

     

    • Illinois High School Athletic Association held its first girls Cross Country State Championship.

  •  

    • Cheryl Miller was the first player, male or female, to be named an All-American by Parade magazine four times. Miller scored 41 points in Riverside Poly’s 1982 CIF Girls Division I Basketball Championship win (still the most points ever scored in any game of any division of the CIF girls’ state championships). In 1986, Sports Illustrated named Miller as the best male or female player in college basketball. Additionally, she was a member of USA Basketball’s Olympic Gold Medal win in 1984. In 1990, Miller was inducted into the NFHS Hall of Fame and in 1995, she was enshrined in the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. In 1999, she was inducted into the inaugural class of the Women's Basketball Hall of Fame and in 2010, Miller was also inducted into the FIBA Hall of Fame for her success in international play.

     

    • Sheryl Solberg was hired by the North Dakota High School Activities Association in 1978. Solberg was a key leader in the state in the growth of girls sports at the high school level. Through her tireless dedication to girls activities she became the face of girls sports throughout the state.

     

    •California Interscholastic Federation held its first girls volleyball state/regional championship.

  •  

    • Mildred Ball was the first African-American Assistant Commissioner hired by the Indiana High School Athletic Association. Mildred Morgan Ball was an assistant commissioner to the Indiana High School Athletic Association from 1977-97.

     

    2,083,040 girls participated in high school sports in 1977-78.

     

    • Virginia Yankoskie was hired by the Oregon School Activities Association. She was awarded an NFHS Citation in 1999.

     

    • Illinois High School Association held its first girls state championships in basketball, badminton and gymnastics.

     

    • Kansas State High School Activities Association held its first girls cross country state championship.

     

    • California Interscholastic Federation held its first girls cross country state championship.

     

    • Sister Lynn Winsor has been the Athletic Director & Vice Principal for Activities at Xavier College Preparatory, a girls’ school, since 1977, and has been instrumental in blazing the trail for Title IX throughout the entire state of Arizona and nation. Sr. Lynn was one of the founders of the Arizona Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Association in 1982. 

     

  •  

    • Susan Zinn was hired by the Nebraska School Activities Association. She also worked for the Texas University Interscholastic League.

     

    • Illinois High School Association held its first girls softball state championship. 

     

    • Myrna Jones was hired by the Idaho High School Activities Association. In 1997, she was awarded an NFHS Citation. 

     

  •  

    • Sandy Scott became the first female executive director of a state athletic/activity association in the nation in 1990 when she was chosen to lead the New York State Public High School Athletic Association. 

     

    • Cecelia Jackson was hired by the Florida High School Athletic Association. In 2004, she received an NFHS Citation. 

     

    • Kaye Garms was a pioneer in women's sports officiating in Colorado. She was selected to officiate the first 15 state girls basketball tournaments and assigned to 12 state title games from 1975 until her retirement in 1990. Garms also officiated 16 Colorado State track meets.

     

    • Cindy Brogdon was one of the top girls basketball players in Georgia history during her four years (1972-75) at Greater Atlanta Christian School. Brogdon helped her teams to three GHSA state titles. Brogdon set 12 school records , including most points in a game (44)m season (802) and career (2,672). Brogdon also helped the US Olympic team to a silver medal in 1976.

     

    • Illinois High School Association held its first girls state championships in swimming and diving and golf. 

  •  

    • Ruth Rehn hired to South Dakota High School Activities Association executive staff as first female to oversee girls' sports (South Dakota). Rehn is a recipient of the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport Pathfinder award, the South Dakota Girls and Women in Sport Service award and the South Dakota Girls and Women in Sport Leadership award.

     

    • 1973 - 1974: 1,300,169 girls participating in high school sports

     

    • NFHS petitioned to have separate but equal teams on behalf of girls.

     

    • California Interscholastic Federation held its first girls track and field state championship.

     

    • Illinois High School Association held its first girls volleyball state championship.

     

    • Kansas State High School Activities Association held its first girls gymnastics state championship.

     

    • Margaret Davis was hired by the California Interscholastic Federation Southern Section as its first female administrative assistant now titled assistant commissioner. She held that position until moving to the CIF State Office in 1981. Davis was instrumental in promoting girls athletics and helped the transition of all girls high school athletics from the Girls Athletic Association to full CIF competition. 

     

     

  •  

    • Patricia Mack was hired by the South Carolina High School League as its first female administrator. 

     

    • Geraldine Critchley was the first female on the Idaho High School Activities Association board. She was the first female athletic director to be in charge of both girls and boys sports and was the first president of the Idaho Coaches of Girls sports.

     

    • Illinois High School Association held its first girls state championships in Bowling, Tennis, and Track and Field. 

     

    • Kansas State High School Activities Association held its first girls state championships in Basketball and Golf.

     

    • Flo Peragello was hired by the New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic Association as its first female administrator. 

     

    • Mary Anderson was hired by the North Dakota High School Activities Association as its first female administrator. 

     

    • Joan Warrington was hired by the Michigan High School Athletic Association as its first female administrator. 

     

     

  • • Title IX is signed into law by President Richard Nixon on June 23.

     

    • Girls participation in high school athletics reaches 294,015.

     

    • Bonnie Northcutt was hired by the Texas UIL Athletics office in 1972 and promoted to Assistant Athletic Director in 1978 (the first woman to hold the position), and later became the UIL’s first-ever Director of Policy (1995).

     

    • The Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association registers women as game/meet officials for the first time and 280 women register.

     

    • Patricia Roy joined the Indiana High School Athletic Association on Jan. 1, 1972, as the new Director of Girls Athletics. Roy served on the IHSAA executive staff longer than anyone in the history of the IHSAA.

     

  •  

    • Dorothy McIntyre joins the MSHSL in 1970 with the task of assisting schools to develop girls sports programs, and became a leader in expanding opportunities for girls to participate in Minnesota. She was selected as Minnesota's 100 Most Important Sports Figures of the Century. 

     

    • First workshop offered during 1970 Summer Meeting entitled: Incorporating Girls' Athletics in State Associations.

Education

NFHS Learn
Title IX

Over 3.4 million girls participate in High School Athletics every year. This participation is fueled by the flagship legislation for girls’ participation, Title IX. The NFHS has developed this Title IX course to help interscholastic professionals know the history and impact of Title IX and understand the responsibilities of a school and staff pertaining to girls athletic programs. This course discusses the standards at which Title IX compliance is evaluated and breaks down the factors involved in supporting girls programs.